Answers to Quizzes and Questions
Review Quiz 1
1. Yes. This is almost an exact paraphrase of the definition of motivation.
2. Yes. He is looking for ways to stimulate readers to study harder.
3. No. Mr. Howell is concerned with an important outcome; but he is concerned more with how learners will organize information than with how to stimulate them to learn. His concern with motivation is indirect, at best.
4. Yes. Mr. Jorden's hope is that the students will be stimulated to study harder if they see this connection.
5. Yes. Mrs. Jeffries believes that if students have clear goals they will be stimulated to study harder.
Review Quiz 2
1. False. Level of certainty is an important factor in determining motivation. An intermediate degree of uncertainty is usually best.
2. False. An ideal motivational system involves short-term goals that lead to long-term goals. Learners should be aware of both types of goals.
4. False. Performance feedback will contribute to motivation to the extent that it promotes perceptions of personal competence and refrains from attacking that competence.
7. b. She is helping them move from a high degree of certainty that they will fail to a more intermediate degree of certainty - that is, to a perception that they might be able to succeed after all. Many students answer d (appealing to self esteem) for this question. While enhanced self esteem may accompany the success of Miss Decker's students, she was focusing more directly on uncertainty. If the anecdote said that "she convinced them that they really knew a lot more than they thought" or that "accomplishing the task would be a significant achievement that they could be proud of," this would focus more on self esteem as a factor in motivation.
Review Quiz 3
1. Yes. She is appealing to sensory curiosity.
2. Yes. He is appealing to cognitive curiosity.
3. No. She is giving performance feedback, which is related to challenge as a motivational factor.
4. Yes. She is appealing to sensory curiosity.
Review Quiz 4
1. Yes. She is telling the students that they will be able to control their environment more effectively if they learn mathematics.
2. No. Mr. Freeman is appealing to curiosity.
Review Quiz 5
1. Yes. If you want to get technical, this is an exogenous fantasy.
2. Yes. This is an endogenous fantasy.
3. No. Professor Vockell is enabling readers to obtain performance feedback to determine their status with regard to the challenge of meeting learning goals.
4. No. Mrs. Hahn is focusing on challenge to enhance motivation. She is setting a goal, which she hopes will pose a challenge that the students will want to meet. If the unit quiz focused on concepts that would be encountered on the field trip and if the students imagined that they were interacting with these concepts while preparing for the quiz, then this would become an example of fantasy.
Review Quiz 6
1. Putting the student's score on the list is an example of recognition for success within a competition. Students are likely to view this as a challenge and to set their goals according to what they need to do to make it to the list. In addition, the gamelike features of the program probably stimulate curiosity - and conceivably fantasy, if the student identifies with the munchers or munchees.
2. By encouraging them to work together towards a common goal, Miss Monroe is emphasizing cooperation. In addition, the goal of doing well on the test represents a challenge for the individual students, and the initial test gave them performance feedback with regard to this challenge.
3. The coach is setting a challenge for the students to meet the designated goals. The description indicates that he tried to minimize competition, but it is likely that the team members themselves would make comparisons and introduce a competitive element. Giving them the rewards is an example of recognition. If the members of the team would help one another work toward their goals, this would involve cooperation.
Review Quiz 7
5. Competition. (Challenge is also a reasonable answer.)
6. Cooperation. (Challenge is also a reasonable answer.)
7. Curiosity. (Mrs. Olivares is presenting information at a level of optimal discrepancy.)
Review Quiz 8
1. a. ability. This is an internal and stable attribution, over which Helen has little control. This is a good attribution, but from a motivational perspective, it would be better if she attributed success to a combination of ability and hard work. Her present attribution leaves the possibility that she may not work as hard as possible in the future, because her ability may be enough to carry her.
b. luck. Purvis believes that his failure occurred for reasons that are outside himself (external), likely not to happen again if things are different (unstable), and controlled by the whims of the teacher (uncontrollable). This attribution would not lead to hard work in the future.
c. luck and effort. Luck is external, unstable, and beyond Clyde's control. Effort is internal, unstable, and within his control. It would be better if Clyde put the emphasis on effort. If he emphasizes luck, this will reduce the probability that he will work hard in the future.
d. task difficulty. This attribution is external, stable, and beyond Maria's control. History will always be difficult, and it is not likely that she will work harder in the future.
e. effort. Han is saying that if he would have found a way to use his academic learning time more effectively (a good definition of effort), he would have done better. This attribution is internal, unstable, and controllable. Han is likely to work harder - especially if someone helps him develop a better study strategy.
f. luck. Although he has not labeled this factor explicitly, luck would appear to be the best term to describe what he feels. The problem is certainly not perceived as within himself. For all he knows he could have done better with the same amount of studying. And he sure as heck doesn't think he's the one who determined whether he would succeed or fail. It is not at all likely that he will be motivated to do harder or better work in the future.
2. a. "Good job. Your serious study habits have paid off." (This comment is designed to shift Helen toward an effort attribution. It is going to work only if Helen really has employed serious study habits to the topic. With her present attribution, Helen is likely to reduce her effort if she does more poorly the next time.)
b. "If you organize the material properly, you can anticipate the types of questions the teacher will ask. Then you won't be surprised, and you should be able to do well all the time." (This comment is designed to shift Purvis toward an effort attribution. If Purvis shifts toward the belief that he is in charge of his own fate, he is likely to study harder in the face of failure and to learn more.)
c. "Good job. You organized your notes well and were ready for anything. You would have done equally well on any questions the teacher might reasonably have asked." (The teacher is validating his effort attribution.)
d. "I don't think your problem is not that the material is too hard. You have mastered equally hard material in the past. If you take better notes, organize the material accurately, and study more carefully, I think you can improve your score." (This comment is designed to shift Maria toward an effort attribution. If Maria shifts toward the belief that she is in charge of her own fate, she will be more likely to persist in the face of future difficulty.)
e. "That's an excellent insight. I think you're right. Have you thought of trying it this way...?" (The teacher is validating Han's effort attribution.)
f. Somebody should teach Paul how to organize the information and study it appropriately. This is a common problem with learning disabled students. The current emphasis in learning disabled literature is on strategic teaching that focuses on effort - enabling the students to use their learning time more effectively by applying productive strategies.
3. a. effort. This sounds like a fruitful approach, since effort can change and it is within the learner's control to change it.
b. ability and luck. This is not likely to have an impact. Ability is a stable characteristic that the learner cannot easily change; and luck is something the learner can do nothing about.
c. effort. This sounds like a productive approach, since effort (study habits) can change and it is within the learner's control to change it.
4. d) is the only effort attribution. It would be likely to work - provided it is true that taking accurate notes and studying them carefully are skills that will really lead to success in the class.
a) is an ability attribution. It would be helpful if Jane had an unduly pessimistic perception of her ability. In addition, if the second sentence has an implicit conclusion ("... if you work harder), then this attribution could be effective.
b) is a luck attribution. It is not likely to stimulate additional effort.
c) is a luck attribution. It is not likely to stimulate additional effort.
e) is a very foolish response. It was included here only to see if you were awake. If you think more carefully, I'm sure you can find a better answer.
5. b) is the best answer, since it combines ability and effort attributions - the student will think his success is a result of competence and hard work.
a) is an ability attribution. It would be better to combine it with effort, as in statement (b).
c) is an implicit attribution that the student has high ability and that he would do better if he worked harder. If the student saw through all this implicitness, this one might be effective. However, a further problem is that it also tends to focus more on the failure rather than the success of the student.
d) is an effort attribution, but it is not backed up by the ability attribution that was present in (b). It is phrased more negatively than (b).
e) is purely an ability attribution. It should be backed up by an effort attribution.
6. c) is the best answer. It focuses on success (which is at least implicitly the result of effort) and also points to a specific way in which effort can lead to greater productivity.
a) and b) both lack the explicit focus on effort that is present in (c).
d) focuses too heavily on ability as opposed to effort.
e) suggests effort, but does not give the explicit guidelines available in (c). The comparison to the classmate may also challenge Jamahl's self esteem - make him think he cannot do as well as Jacob.
Putting It All Together
1. Effort can be defined as the degree to which one schedules and allocates sufficient time to master a topic or solve a problem and employs strategies to use that time as productively as possible in order to maintain a high rate of engagement and a high rate of success or understanding.
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Summary of Intrinsic Motivation
Motivating Through Curriculum
Reinforcement and Punishment
Affective Aspects of Motivation
Physiological Aspects of Motivation
Cognitive Aspects of Motivation
Needs and Motivation
Development and Motivation
Motivation as a Personality Characteristic
Social Aspects of Motivation: Classroom Structure
What Teachers Can Do About Motivation
What Parents Can Do About Motivation
What Students Can Do About Motivation
Answers to Quizzes